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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:dg-dongli.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架(jia)机械手(shou)由(you)主体(ti)、驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)系(xi)统和控制(zhi)系(xi)统三个(ge)基本部分(fen)组成。按机器人结构分(fen)类为(wei)直(zhi)(zhi)角坐标(biao)型,机械手(shou)沿(yan)二维直(zhi)(zhi)角坐标(biao)系(xi)移动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。主体(ti)部分(fen)通(tong)常采(cai)用龙门式结构,由(you)y向(xiang)横(heng)梁(liang)与导轨、z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕(zhen)、十字滑(hua)座(zuo)、立柱、过(guo)渡(du)连接板(ban)和基座(zuo)等部分(fen)组成,z向(xiang)的(de)直(zhi)(zhi)线运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)皆为(wei)交流伺服电动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机通(tong)过(guo)蜗轮(lun)减(jian)速器驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)齿轮(lun)与y向(xiang)横(heng)梁(liang)、z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕(zhen)上(shang)固定(ding)的(de)齿条作滚动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)移动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)部件沿(yan)导轨快速运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。移动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)部件为(wei)质量(liang)较轻的(de)十字滑(hua)座(zuo)和z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕(zhen),滑(hua)枕(zhen)采(cai)用由(you)铝合(he)金(jin)拉制(zhi)的(de)型材。横(heng)梁(liang)采(cai)用方钢型材,在(zai)(zai)横(heng)梁(liang)上(shang)安装有导轨和齿条,通(tong)过(guo)滚轮(lun)与导轨接触,整个(ge)机械手(shou)都悬挂(gua)在(zai)(zai)其上(shang)。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)速(su)度快,加速(su)度大,加减速(su)时(shi)间短。当输(shu)送(song)较重(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)时(shi),惯量大,因此(ci),伺服(fu)驱动(dong)(dong)电(dian)机(ji)要(yao)有(you)足够(gou)的(de)(de)(de)驱动(dong)(dong)和(he)(he)(he)制动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)能(neng)力,支撑(cheng)元件(jian)(jian)也要(yao)有(you)足够(gou)的(de)(de)(de)刚度及强度。只(zhi)有(you)这样,才(cai)能(neng)使伺服(fu)电(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)满足桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)高(gao)响应、高(gao)刚度及高(gao)精度要(yao)求。在选择(ze)(ze)合适伺服(fu)电(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)(de)情况下,根(gen)据物料运(yun)动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)距离和(he)(he)(he)运(yun)行节拍,计算出(chu)伺服(fu)系统的(de)(de)(de)位移和(he)(he)(he)轨(gui)迹(ji),对(dui)驱动(dong)(dong)器PID参数(shu)进行动(dong)(dong)态(tai)调(diao)整。桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)根(gen)据接收到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)位移、速(su)度指(zhi)令,经变(bian)化、放大并调(diao)整处(chu)理后,传递给运(yun)动(dong)(dong)单元,通(tong)过光(guang)纤传感器对(dui)运(yun)行状(zhuang)态(tai)进行实时(shi)检测(ce),在高(gao)速(su)搬(ban)运(yun)过程(cheng)中,运(yun)动(dong)(dong)部件(jian)(jian)在极短的(de)(de)(de)时(shi)间内到(dao)达给定的(de)(de)(de)速(su)度,并能(neng)在高(gao)速(su)行程(cheng)中瞬间准停(ting),通(tong)过高(gao)分辩率绝对(dui)式编码器的(de)(de)(de)插补运(yun)算,控制机(ji)械误(wu)差和(he)(he)(he)测(ce)量误(wu)差对(dui)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)精度的(de)(de)(de)影响。由于被输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)不(bu)同,质量也不(bu)同,因此(ci),桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)有(you)多种(zhong)规格和(he)(he)(he)系列。在选择(ze)(ze)时(shi),根(gen)据被输(shu)送(song)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)质量,加工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)节拍来(lai)选取。但机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)手(shou)(shou)(shou)臂,夹持方(fang)(fang)式,则根(gen)据被输(shu)送(song)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)形状(zhuang)、结(jie)构及机(ji)床夹具定夹方(fang)(fang)式来(lai)设计(见图2)。

机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)能够借助可(ke)(ke)编程(cheng)序来处(chu)理和(he)执行(xing)任务。机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)主(zhu)要由手(shou)图 1 臂、回转装(zhuang)置、运动(dong)部件及驱(qu)动(dong)部件组成。通过对工(gong)件外形或(huo)工(gong)件上(shang)定位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)支撑点定位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)夹(jia)持(chi)工(gong)件。例如,在汽车发动(dong)机加(jia)工(gong)柔性自(zi)动(dong)线物流输送中,桁架(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)夹(jia)持(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)会(hui)根据(ju)(ju)缸(gang)体(ti)、缸(gang)盖、曲轴等(deng)工(gong)件的(de)外形特点,选取不(bu)同(tong)(tong)的(de)定位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)和(he)夹(jia)持(chi)方式(shi)。柔性机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)上(shang)采用(yong)气(qi)缸(gang)和(he)电机进行(xing)定位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)和(he)夹(jia)持(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)的(de)切换(huan)驱(qu)动(dong),一套(tao)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)可(ke)(ke)完成不(bu)同(tong)(tong)品(pin)种(zhong)的(de)工(gong)件搬运工(gong)作。夹(jia)持(chi)定位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)可(ke)(ke)根据(ju)(ju)产品(pin)质量(liang)和(he)外形的(de)大(da)小采用(yong)系列化(hua)设计,机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)上(shang)的(de)夹(jia)持(chi)定位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)安装(zhuang)方式(shi)相同(tong)(tong),针对不(bu)同(tong)(tong)系列的(de)工(gong)件,只需(xu)切换(huan)相应的(de)夹(jia)持(chi)定位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)即(ji)可(ke)(ke),满足快速切换(huan)的(de)需(xu)要。这样,当加(jia)工(gong)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)品(pin)种(zhong)的(de)工(gong)件,只须变(bian)换(huan)夹(jia)持(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)就可(ke)(ke)实现,提高(gao)了桁架(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)柔性化(hua)。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线桁架(jia)机械手(shou)输(shu)送装置的发展及(ji)现状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)发展(zhan),经历了刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)(he)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)两个时代。就目前而言, 在(zai)国内二者均有之。刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)(fen)(fen)为(wei)棘轮(lun)棘爪、摆杆、抬起步(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等(deng)(deng)形式。随着加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)发展(zhan),由其组(zu)成的(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)逐(zhu)步(bu)替代组(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成的(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),它以适应小批量多(duo)品种(zhong)的(de)(de)优(you)点,得到市场的(de)(de)广泛(fan)认可(ke),并称其为(wei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。这种(zhong)以加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),就其输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)装置(zhi)或输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)带依然为(wei)刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing), 这类(lei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓是(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)。当今的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)又有了飞(fei)跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)形式以刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou))并存,或纯(chun)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),即(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统全(quan)部由桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)组(zu)成,这是(shi)真(zhen)正(zheng)的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),即(ji)主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统也柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)高(gao)速(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心配(pei)以桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),又称之为(wei)敏捷柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)敏捷制(zhi)(zhi)造系(xi)统的(de)(de)重要组(zu)成部分(fen)(fen)(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)采(cai)用桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)可(ke)根(gen)据机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)配(pei)置(zhi)随意改变,自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上的(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与(yu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)之间的(de)(de)安装位置(zhi)不再象刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)那样,按照输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)或步(bu)距(ju)倍数(shu)的(de)(de)要求(qiu)进(jin)行严(yan)格的(de)(de)安装,且输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)速(su)度也可(ke)根(gen)据生(sheng)产(chan)节拍及(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)距(ju)离(li)而改变。而真(zhen)正(zheng)体现(xian)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)重要一面(mian)是(shi),当被加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)产(chan)品改变后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)部分(fen)(fen)(fen)不会不适应而全(quan)部更换,只(zhi)要改变输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)程(cheng)序和(he)(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)局部结构即(ji)可(ke)。采(cai)用桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)更先进(jin)的(de)(de)一面(mian)是(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)整(zheng)体的(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化(hua)、智能化(hua)的(de)(de)协调统一。因此,桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)才在(zai)当今柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上越来越多(duo)地被采(cai)用,使整(zheng)个生(sheng)产(chan)过(guo)程(cheng)通过(guo)信(xin)息流系(xi)统进(jin)行控制(zhi)(zhi)。在(zai)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)和(he)(he)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)程(cheng)中,所需各种(zhong)信(xin)息收集(ji)、处理(li)、反馈,并通过(guo)电子计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或其他控制(zhi)(zhi)装置(zhi)(液(ye)压、气压装置(zhi)等(deng)(deng)),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)或运(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)设备实行分(fen)(fen)(fen)级(ji)控制(zhi)(zhi)。信(xin)息流系(xi)统分(fen)(fen)(fen)为(wei)由中央管理(li)计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流控制(zhi)(zhi)计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元控制(zhi)(zhi)计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各数(shu)控机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)以及(ji)信(xin)息传送(song)(song)(song)(song)网络(luo)组(zu)成。目前,汽车(che)制(zhi)(zhi)造业(ye)中加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体、缸盖(gai)及(ji)曲轴等(deng)(deng)大(da)批量关(guan)键零(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)都采(cai)用了桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(见图3)。

2. 国内(nei)外的差距

当下,我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan)很快(kuai),技术(shu)水(shui)平有了(le)很大(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)提(ti)高,与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)变得越来越小(xiao),甚至有些机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外相比(bi)已经(jing)没有什么差距(ju)。特(te)别是国(guo)(guo)(guo)家重大(da)科技专项的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)开(kai)展(zhan),为(wei)我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)上(shang)档(dang)(dang)次上(shang)水(shui)平提(ti)高了(le)加速度,成(cheng)绩显而(er)易见。加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)这几年发展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)特(te)别快(kuai),但柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)技术(shu)水(shui)平和(he)档(dang)(dang)次,较(jiao)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)还很明显,国(guo)(guo)(guo)外采用桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)较(jiao)为(wei)普遍,而(er)国(guo)(guo)(guo)内却为(wei)数不多,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内庞大(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)汽(qi)车(che)生(sheng)产(chan)市场所采用的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)带(dai)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)多从(cong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外进口(kou)。如无锡柴油发动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)缸体(ti)缸盖柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)由(you)(you)德国(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公司总承(cheng)包,由(you)(you)BZ800加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)、GROB专机(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏(lou)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)在线(xian)(xian)(xian)检具、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩磨(mo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)成(cheng)。输(shu)送采用空(kong)中(zhong)(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)输(shu)送。仅以汽(qi)车(che)制造(zao)业而(er)言,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),采用桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)屈(qu)指可数。大(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集(ji)团和(he)沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集(ji)团等(deng)生(sheng)产(chan)出了(le)该(gai)方面的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),并在生(sheng)产(chan)实际(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)得到了(le)应用。图(tu)4是大(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集(ji)团生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸体(ti)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两种缸体(ti),分别为(wei)四缸和(he)六缸,其输(shu)送采用空(kong)中(zhong)(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手和(he)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)两端为(wei)机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等(deng)形式。桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手两个(ge),一个(ge)上(shang)料(liao),一个(ge)下料(liao)。它的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)功(gong),标志(zhi)着我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)由(you)(you)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)开(kai)始向国(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)水(shui)准迈(mai)进。

上述(shu)提及的(de)(de)只是(shi)数(shu)量上的(de)(de)比较,其实真正的(de)(de)原因(yin)还(hai)是(shi)国(guo)(guo)产(chan)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)技术水平(ping)与国(guo)(guo)外(wai)有着一(yi)(yi)定的(de)(de)差距。柔性加(jia)(jia)工自动线(xian)采(cai)用(yong)的(de)(de)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou),也是(shi)从国(guo)(guo)外(wai)进口(kou)的(de)(de)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)。那(nei)时,国(guo)(guo)内还(hai)没(mei)有专门生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)厂(chang)家。如今,国(guo)(guo)内巨(ju)一(yi)(yi)等一(yi)(yi)些桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)厂(chang)家的(de)(de)涌(yong)出,为国(guo)(guo)产(chan)柔性加(jia)(jia)工自动线(xian)带来(lai)了(le)(le)希望,进而缩小了(le)(le)与国(guo)(guo)外(wai)在生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)方(fang)面(mian)的(de)(de)差距,国(guo)(guo)产(chan)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)在柔性加(jia)(jia)工自动线(xian)的(de)(de)应用(yong)也越来(lai)越多,从而打(da)破(po)国(guo)(guo)产(chan)市(shi)场(chang)被外(wai)国(guo)(guo)人的(de)(de)垄断(duan)。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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