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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:dg-dongli.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该使用卧式加工(gong)(gong)中心吗?——加工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)特征

加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)类(lei)(lei)型的(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)定需要(yao)考虑加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)对(dui)象、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)艺、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)范(fan)围和设备(bei)价格等(deng)因(yin)素(su),根(gen)据所选(xuan)(xuan)零(ling)件(jian)族 (组)进行(xing)。如果您的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)具有以(yi)下(xia)特征,则应(ying)选(xuan)(xuan)择卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin):加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)两面(mian)(mian)以(yi)上(shang)的(de)(de)零(ling)件(jian)或(huo)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)在四(si)周呈径向辐射状排列的(de)(de)孔系、面(mian)(mian),如箱体(ti)类(lei)(lei)、壳(qiao)体(ti)类(lei)(lei)零(ling)件(jian)等(deng),应(ying)选(xuan)(xuan)择卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin);被加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)位置精度要(yao)求较高,宜选(xuan)(xuan)用高精密卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin);零(ling)件(jian)在一次装夹中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)需要(yao)完成多(duo)面(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)时,可选(xuan)(xuan)择立(li)卧(wo)复合(he)式五(wu)面(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)。当然,上(shang)述(shu)各点也不是绝对(dui)的(de)(de),一方面(mian)(mian)是由(you)于(yu)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)正朝(chao)着复合(he)化(hua)方向发展(zhan),另一方面(mian)(mian)选(xuan)(xuan)型时要(yao)综合(he)考虑生产效(xiao)率、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)艺要(yao)求和设备(bei)资金等(deng)因(yin)素(su),要(yao)以(yi)性(xing)价比来衡(heng)量选(xuan)(xuan)型方案的(de)(de)合(he)理性(xing)。

建(jian)议:采购用(yong)户需要根据加工(gong)对象(xiang)、加工(gong)工(gong)艺(yi)、加工(gong)范围(wei)等特征(zheng)来确定(ding)是否使(shi)用(yong)卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)中(zhong)心以及使(shi)用(yong)什么样的卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)中(zhong)心。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)尺(chi)寸

这是(shi)卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)的主参(can)数(shu),主要取决于典型(xing)零(ling)件的外廓尺寸(cun)、装夹方式(shi)等(deng)(deng)。应(ying)选择比(bi)典型(xing)零(ling)件外廓尺寸(cun)稍(shao)大一些的工(gong)作台(tai),以便留出安装夹具所需(xu)的空间(jian),保证零(ling)件在其上面能(neng)够(gou)顺利装夹,此外还应(ying)考虑工(gong)作台(tai)的承载能(neng)力、T形槽数(shu)量和尺寸(cun)等(deng)(deng),小尺寸(cun)的比(bi)较通用,比(bi)如站内(nei)的卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等(deng)(deng)。

建议:目前市场上的(de)卧式加工(gong)中心工(gong)作台(tai)尺寸多为1000以下的(de),能够(gou)满(man)足(zu)大多数用户的(de)需求(qiu)。

(2)坐(zuo)标(biao)轴行程

最基本的(de)(de)坐标(biao)轴是X、Y、Z三轴,其(qi)行(xing)程(cheng)和(he)工(gong)(gong)作台尺(chi)寸有相应的(de)(de)比例关(guan)系,工(gong)(gong)作台面(mian)的(de)(de)大小基本上确定了加(jia)工(gong)(gong)空(kong)间的(de)(de)大小。如(ru)个(ge)别零件的(de)(de)尺(chi)寸大于卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心(xin)行(xing)程(cheng)时,则必(bi)须要求零件的(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)区域处于机(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)行(xing)程(cheng)范围之(zhi)内(nei),此外还要考(kao)虑零件是否与机(ji)床(chuang)交换刀(dao)具的(de)(de)空(kong)间干涉(she)、与机(ji)床(chuang)防护罩等(deng)附件发生(sheng)干涉(she)等(deng)系列(lie)问题。而对需要多轴联动加(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心(xin) (如(ru)增加(jia)回转坐标(biao)A、B、C或附加(jia)坐标(biao)U、V、W),如(ru)四轴、五轴联动卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心(xin),这就需要特殊订货,同时必(bi)须对相应配(pei)套的(de)(de)编程(cheng)软件、测(ce)量(liang)手段以(yi)及机(ji)床(chuang)价格(ge)等(deng)有全(quan)面(mian)的(de)(de)考(kao)虑和(he)安排(pai)。

建议:采购用户需要根据加工工件规格选择不同坐标轴行程(cheng)的卧式加工中(zhong)心,多轴联动需要特殊定制。

(3)主轴电动(dong)机(ji)功(gong)率(lv)与(yu)转矩(ju)

它反(fan)映了卧(wo)式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的切削效率,也从一个侧面反(fan)映了卧(wo)式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的切削刚性和机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)整体刚度(du)。主(zhu)轴电(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)功率在同(tong)类规(gui)格的卧(wo)式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)上可以有各种不(bu)(bu)同(tong)的配置,同(tong)类规(gui)格的主(zhu)轴转速不(bu)(bu)同(tong)的卧(wo)式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin),主(zhu)轴电(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)功率可以相差很大。

建议(yi):采购用(yong)户应根据自身典型零(ling)件毛(mao)坯余(yu)量大小、切(qie)削能(neng)力 (单位时(shi)间金属(shu)切(qie)削量)、要(yao)求达到的加(jia)工精度、实际能(neng)配(pei)置的刀具等因素综(zong)合选择。

(4)主轴(zhou)转(zhuan)速与进(jin)给速度

需要(yao)高速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)切削或超低速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)切削时,应关(guan)注主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)的转(zhuan)速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)范(fan)围。特别是高速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)切削时,既要(yao)有(you)高的主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)(su),同时也(ye)要(yao)具(ju)备与主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)相(xiang)匹配的进给(ji)速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)度。目前卧式加工中心高速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)化(hua)趋势发展很快,主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)从每分(fen)钟几(ji)千转(zhuan)到几(ji)万转(zhuan),直(zhi)线坐(zuo)标快速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)移动(dong)速(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)(su)度从10—20/min上升到80m/min以上,当然其功能部件(jian)(jian)如电(dian)主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)、直(zhi)线电(dian)动(dong)机、直(zhi)线滚动(dong)导轨(gui)、主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)轴(zhou)(zhou)承(cheng)等及(ji)相(xiang)配套的光栅尺、刀具(ju)等附(fu)件(jian)(jian)价格也(ye)都相(xiang)应上升,甚至(zhi)很昂贵。

建议:采购用户必须根(gen)据自身的(de)技(ji)术(shu)能力和配套能力合理作出卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心的(de)合理选型。

(5)刀库容(rong)量

可以(yi)根(gen)据被(bei)加工(gong)零件的工(gong)艺分(fen)析结果来(lai)确定所需数量,通常以(yi)典型零件在一(yi)次装(zhuang)夹中(zhong)所需刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)数量来(lai)确定刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)的容(rong)量,卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心以(yi)选用(yong)(yong)40把刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)左右的刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)为宜(yi)。同时要关注最大(da)(da)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)直径(jing)与长度以(yi)及最大(da)(da)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)重量等。用(yong)(yong)于FMC或FMS的卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心,应选择大(da)(da)容(rong)量刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku),甚至配置可交换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)。

建议:普通卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心(xin)选择(ze)40把刀左右的(de)刀库即够用,用于(yu)FMC或FMS的(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心(xin)应选择(ze)大容量刀库。

3我需要(yao)选用什么精(jing)度的(de)卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心?——精(jing)度的(de)选定

加工中心的(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)等级主要根据典(dian)型(xing)零件关键(jian)部位的(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)来确定(ding)(ding)(ding)。其精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)主要包括(kuo)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)、重复(fu)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)和铣圆精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du),特别(bie)是重复(fu)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du),它(ta)反映(ying)了坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)(zhou)的(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位稳(wen)(wen)定(ding)(ding)(ding)性,是衡(heng)量该轴(zhou)(zhou)是否稳(wen)(wen)定(ding)(ding)(ding)可靠(kao)工作的(de)(de)基(ji)本(ben)指标(biao)(biao)。特别(bie)值(zhi)(zhi)得注意(yi)的(de)(de)是,选型(xing)订(ding)货时必须全面分析,不(bu)(bu)能简单地看产品样(yang)本(ben)所列的(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)数(shu)值(zhi)(zhi),因(yin)为(wei)标(biao)(biao)准不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)、规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)数(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)、检测方法不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong),数(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)含义(yi)就不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)。刊(kan)物、样(yang)本(ben)、合格证所列出(chu)的(de)(de)单位长度(du)(du)上允(yun)许的(de)(de)正负(fu)值(zhi)(zhi)(一(yi)般为(wei)正负(fu)0.05)常(chang)常(chang)是不(bu)(bu)明确的(de)(de),订(ding)货时要特别(bie)注意(yi),一(yi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)要弄清是IOS(国际标(biao)(biao)准化(hua)组织标(biao)(biao)准)、VDI(德国标(biao)(biao)准)、JIS(日本(ben)标(biao)(biao)准)、NMTBA(美国机(ji)床制造商协会标(biao)(biao)准)还是NAS(美国标(biao)(biao)准)及GB(中国标(biao)(biao)准)等,进而分析各种不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)标(biao)(biao)准所规(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)检测计算(suan)方法和检测环境条件,才不(bu)(bu)会产生误(wu)解。

铣圆精(jing)度是(shi)综(zong)合评(ping)价(jia)卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心有关数控轴的伺服跟随运动特(te)性和数控系(xi)统插(cha)补功能的主要(yao)(yao)指标之(zhi)一。不论典型(xing)零件是(shi)否有此(ci)需(xu)要(yao)(yao),为(wei)了将来可能的需(xu)要(yao)(yao)及更好地控制(zhi)精(jing)度,必须(xu)重视这(zhei)一指标。

要(yao)特别注(zhu)意区别加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)度(du)(du)与机(ji)床精(jing)度(du)(du)两(liang)个(ge)不同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)概(gai)念。将生产厂家(jia)样本上(shang)或(huo)产品合(he)格证上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)置(zhi)精(jing)度(du)(du)当(dang)作(zuo)卧式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)度(du)(du)是错误的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。样本或(huo)合(he)格证上(shang)标明的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)置(zhi)精(jing)度(du)(du)是加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心本身(shen)(shen)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)精(jing)度(du)(du),而加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)度(du)(du)是包括(kuo)卧式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心本身(shen)(shen)所(suo)允许误差在内的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)整个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)系统各种因素所(suo)产生的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)误差总和。整个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)系统误差产生的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)原(yuan)因是很复杂的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),很难用线性关系定(ding)量表达。选型时,可参(can)考(kao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序能力系数Cp的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)评定(ding)方法来作(zuo)为(wei)机(ji)床加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)度(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)选型依据。一(yi)般而言,Cp应大于1.33。

站内高精密的几款卧式(shi)(shi)加工中(zhong)心:MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱式(shi)(shi)卧式(shi)(shi)加工中(zhong)心性(xing)能(neng)都不错。

建议:采(cai)购(gou)用(yong)户在挑选不同精(jing)度的(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心(xin)时(shi),需要考虑:不同标准(zhun)对应的(de)单位长(zhang)度含(han)义;重视铣圆精(jing)度指标;区别(bie)加(jia)工精(jing)度和机床精(jing)度。

4我应(ying)该(gai)选(xuan)择哪种数(shu)控系统(tong)?——数(shu)控系统(tong)的选(xuan)定(ding)

数控系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)分为基本(ben)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)与(yu)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng),可以从操(cao)(cao)作(zuo)方式、用户(hu)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)、控制方式、驱动形式、反馈形式、接口形式、检(jian)测(ce)与(yu)测(ce)量、报警与(yu)提(ti)示、故障诊断等(deng)方面(mian)综合衡量。基本(ben)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)是必须(xu)提(ti)供的,而只有当用户(hu)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)了选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)后,厂(chang)家(jia)才会另(ling)行提(ti)供并另(ling)行加价(jia),且定(ding)价(jia)一般(ban)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)。总(zong)体而言,数控系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)一定(ding)要(yao)根(gen)据加工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的性(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)需要(yao)来选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze),订购时(shi)既要(yao)把需要(yao)的功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)订全,不能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)遗漏(lou),同时(shi)避免使(shi)(shi)用率(lv)不高(gao)而造成浪(lang)费,还需注(zhu)意各功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)之(zhi)间的关联性(xing)。另(ling)一方面(mian),在可供选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)的数控系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)中(zhong),如SIEMENS系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)、国(guo)产(chan)华(hua)中(zhong)数控系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)等(deng),性(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)高(gao)低差别很大(da),价(jia)格亦相差很大(da),进(jin)口系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)或国(guo)产(chan)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)亦决定(ding)其价(jia)格的高(gao)低。总(zong)体上来看,法兰克系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)性(xing)价(jia)比(bi)(bi)(bi)比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao),国(guo)内(nei)卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式加工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)使(shi)(shi)用比(bi)(bi)(bi)例比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)。站内(nei)卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式加工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)使(shi)(shi)用法兰克数控系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的也比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)多,比(bi)(bi)(bi)如MH-800B 、 LH-500B都(dou)是比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)好的选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)。多台卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式加工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)选(xuan)(xuan)型时(shi),应尽可能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)选(xuan)(xuan)用同一厂(chang)家(jia)的数控系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong),这样(yang)操(cao)(cao)作(zuo)、编(bian)程(cheng)、维(wei)修都(dou)比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)方便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我需要(yao)选(xuan)择(ze)几台卧式加工(gong)中心能(neng)达到的我的产量要(yao)求(qiu)?——生产能(neng)力(li)的估算

选型时(shi),必(bi)须要考(kao)虑卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心能达(da)(da)到的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生产(chan)能力(li),即要求选定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心在(zai)(zai)一(yi)年之内能加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种(zhong)典(dian)型零(ling)件、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)多(duo)少数量的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)零(ling)件。要得到这些数据必(bi)须对每一(yi)种(zhong)确定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)典(dian)型零(ling)件进(jin)(jin)行(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi)和生产(chan)节拍的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)估(gu)算。一(yi)般(ban)步(bu)骤为:首先,根据已选定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)典(dian)型零(ling)件进(jin)(jin)行(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)分析,初步(bu)确定一(yi)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线,在(zai)(zai)这条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线中选出(chu)准备在(zai)(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心上(shang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu);第二,根据现用的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参数,估(gu)算出(chu)每道在(zai)(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心上(shang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)单个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)时(shi)间;第三,由(you)每个单工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)时(shi)间计(ji)算出(chu)选定零(ling)件在(zai)(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心上(shang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)总时(shi)间,进(jin)(jin)而计(ji)算出(chu)年产(chan)量即生产(chan)能力(li)。如(ru)(ru)果估(gu)算结果达(da)(da)不(bu)到目标值,但(dan)相差(cha)不(bu)大,则可以(yi)(yi)通过修改工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参数的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)方(fang)法加(jia)(jia)以(yi)(yi)调整;如(ru)(ru)果相差(cha)很大,则应(ying)考(kao)虑增加(jia)(jia)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心台数的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配(pei)置(zhi)。

建议:采(cai)购用户需要根(gen)据工(gong)(gong)件加工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)时和生产节拍(pai)的估算,决定(ding)卧式加工(gong)(gong)中心配备台(tai)数。

6卧式加(jia)工中心有好多选配的(de)附件我(wo)应该如何选配?——其他功(gong)能部件及附件的(de)选定

(1)坐标(biao)轴数(shu)和联(lian)动轴数(shu)

坐(zuo)标轴数(shu)和联动(dong)轴数(shu)均(jun)应满足典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)加工要求。一(yi)般情况下(xia)(xia),同厂(chang)家、同规格、同等精度的卧(wo)式加工中心(xin),增加一(yi)个(ge)标准坐(zuo)标轴,价格约增加30%—50%。尽管增加坐(zuo)标轴数(shu)可(ke)以强化加工中心(xin)的功能,是机床上档次的标志(zhi)之(zhi)一(yi),但最(zui)终(zhong)还是要在工艺要求和资金条件(jian)(jian)下(xia)(xia)平衡决定。

(2)工作(zuo)台(tai)

卧式加工中心可配置(zhi)用于分(fen)度的(de)回(hui)转(zhuan)工作(zuo)(zuo)台和(he)数控回(hui)转(zhuan)工作(zuo)(zuo)台,后者能够实现(xian)任意(yi)分(fen)度,作(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)B轴(zhou)与其他(ta)轴(zhou)联动控制(zhi)。回(hui)转(zhuan)工作(zuo)(zuo)台配置(zhi)与否(fou)以(yi)及如(ru)何配置(zhi)必(bi)须(xu)以(yi)实际需要来确定,以(yi)经济、实用为(wei)目(mu)的(de)。

(3)自(zi)动换刀装置 (ATC)

ATC的(de)(de)选择主(zhu)要考虑(lv)换刀(dao)时间与可(ke)靠性。过分强调换刀(dao)时间会(hui)使加工中心(xin)的(de)(de)价格(ge)大幅(fu)度提(ti)高并使故(gu)(gu)障率上(shang)升。据统计,加工中心(xin)的(de)(de)故(gu)(gu)障中约有50%与ATC有关,因此(ci),在满足使用要求(qiu)的(de)(de)前提(ti)下,尽量(liang)选用可(ke)靠性高的(de)(de)ATC,以降低(di)故(gu)(gu)障率和整机成本

(4)必要(yao)的附件、配套件

选(xuan)型(xing)(xing)时,还应注意选(xuan)用(yong)(yong)一(yi)些(xie)配套(tao)件及附(fu)件,尽(jin)量(liang)(liang)(liang)避免因(yin)缺少一(yi)个几(ji)万元就(jiu)能购买的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)附(fu)件而影响卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)工中心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)正常运(yun)行(xing)。慎(shen)重选(xuan)择(ze)刀柄和(he)刀具也是保证(zheng)卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)工中心(xin)正常运(yun)行(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)关键,最佳的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)择(ze)办法应是根据典型(xing)(xing)零件所需(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)品种(zhong)和(he)数量(liang)(liang)(liang)来确定,并(bing)在使用(yong)(yong)中陆续(xu)添置。在卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)工中心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)构(gou)成中,排屑装(zhuang)置、防护装(zhuang)置和(he)对刀装(zhuang)置 (如刀具预调仪)等(deng)均是必需(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),对一(yi)些(xie)尽(jin)管不(bu)是必需(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配套(tao)件,但如果价格不(bu)高,对使用(yong)(yong)带来很多方便,也应尽(jin)量(liang)(liang)(liang)选(xuan)用(yong)(yong),如附(fu)件铣头、储刀料架、运(yun)刀具车(che)、装(zhuang)卸(xie)器(qi)等(deng)。

建议:配件越高,能实(shi)现的功能越多(duo),但价(jia)格也越贵,采(cai)购用户需要根据(ju)加工需求酌情选配。

7卧(wo)式加工中心选(xuan)型时还有(you)什么其他需要注(zhu)意的?——需要注(zhu)意的一些问题

(1)结构设计

加工中心对其床身、立(li)柱、工作台(tai)、主轴以及刀库等功(gong)能部件的(de)结(jie)构(gou)设计(ji)有(you)着很(hen)高(gao)(gao)的(de)要求,以达到其高(gao)(gao)强(qiang)度、高(gao)(gao)刚度、高(gao)(gao)抗振性和稳定(ding)性的(de)目(mu)的(de)。选型时,应特别注意把其结(jie)构(gou)作为一项重要的(de)具体内容来进行要求与(yu)考(kao)虑(lv)。

(2)功能与加工的适应(ying)性

虽然加工(gong)中心可以进行钻、扩(kuo)、铣、镗、铰、攻螺纹乃(nai)至车削 (如车铣复(fu)合加工(gong)中心)等多种加工(gong),但是在具体选(xuan)择时(shi),还应(ying)根据(ju)具体需要来考虑机床的功能与加工(gong)是否相(xiang)适(shi)应(ying)等问题。要注意以下几点:

A、复杂曲线(xian)加工(gong)时,要(yao)(yao)考(kao)(kao)虑(lv)(lv)(lv)CNC是否(fou)有所需要(yao)(yao)的(de)曲线(xian)插补功能,或选(xuan)择什么方式逼(bi)近加工(gong)曲线(xian)并保(bao)证所要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)的(de)表(biao)面粗糙(cao)度。三维加工(gong)时,要(yao)(yao)考(kao)(kao)虑(lv)(lv)(lv)选(xuan)择适合(he)的(de)刀具结构,还要(yao)(yao)考(kao)(kao)虑(lv)(lv)(lv)程(cheng)序(xu)编(bian)制能力,如(ru)有必要(yao)(yao)则(ze)必须配(pei)备自动(dong)编(bian)程(cheng)装置或后置处理(li)编(bian)程(cheng)装置。

B、需要进(jin)行(xing)螺纹(wen)(wen)切削(xue) (非攻(gong)螺纹(wen)(wen)方式)时,不仅要看是(shi)否有螺纹(wen)(wen)切削(xue)功(gong)能(neng)、螺旋线插补(bu)功(gong)能(neng)和(he)主(zhu)轴(zhou)转动与(yu)进(jin)给同步功(gong)能(neng),还要考虑(lv)机床是(shi)否有径(jing)向(xiang)进(jin)给装置(zhi)、是(shi)否有主(zhu)轴(zhou)在(zai)(zai)(zai)旋转方向(xiang)上任意(yi)角度位置(zhi)准确定位功(gong)能(neng)。否则,仅在(zai)(zai)(zai)数控(kong)系统中用(yong)了螺纹(wen)(wen)切削(xue)功(gong)能(neng)仍(reng)然无法(fa)进(jin)行(xing)螺纹(wen)(wen)切削(xue)C、采用(yong)金(jin)刚(gang)铰、浮动镗和(he)挤压加工等特(te)种加工时,既(ji)要考虑(lv)适宜(yi)的自(zi)动换刀的条件(jian),又要考虑(lv)选(xuan)择合适的刀具(ju)结(jie)构和(he)切削(xue)用(yong)量,应尽可能(neng)在(zai)(zai)(zai)购买主(zhu)机时一并(bing)购置(zhi)部分易损部件(jian)及其他附件(jian)等。

D、如果有应用DNC、FMS、CIMS等的规划,或要(yao)进行网络(luo)制(zhi)造,则要(yao)注意(yi)通信功能,应选择具有RS—232、RS—485甚至(zhi)MAP网络(luo)通信、CAN总线等接口的系统。

(3)运转的可靠性

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建(jian)议:采购用户在选型时,需要对(dui)卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)整体的结构(gou)设(she)计、可(ke)靠性(xing)以(yi)及价加(jia)工(gong)适应性(xing)有客观的认识(shi)。


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